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Anula SCJN permiso a Monsanto para sembrar soya transgénica

Fecha: 
Jue, 2015-11-05

Piden suspender cultivos en 250 mil hectáreas de Yucatán, Campeche y Chiapas

Las autorizaciones otorgadas violaron derechos constitucionales de los pueblos indígenas

El gobierno federal debe realizar una consulta previa, libre e informada a las comunidades

Foto
La Suprema Corte dio la razón a campesinos en un amparo contra Monsanto, autorizada en 2012 a cultivar transgénicos sin consultar a comunidades indígenas. En la imagen, un sembradío de soya en YucatánFoto Luis Boffil

Periódico La Jornada
Jueves 5 de noviembre de 2015, p. 39

La segunda sala de la Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nación (SCJN) anuló ayer el permiso concedido a la trasnacional Monsanto por la Dirección General de Sanidad Vegetal del Servicio Nacional de Sanidad, Inocuidad y Calidad Agroalimentaria (Senasica) para la producción de soya transgénica.

El tribunal ordenó a las autoridades realizar una consulta previa, libre e informada con las comunidades indígenas de Yucatán y Campeche, antes de dar una nueva autorización.

Sin entrar al tema del impacto negativo que tendría la siembra de soya genéticamente modificada, los ministros ordenaron a las autoridades que escuchen a las comunidades, tal y como establecen la Constitución y tratados internacionales suscritos por México, cuando un proyecto pueda afectar a los pueblos indígenas.

Productores de miel, encabezados por Angélica María Ek Canché, promovieron amparos en contra de Monsanto y de Senasica, al considerar que la Secretaría de Agricultura, Ganadería, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentación (Sagarpa) había violado su derecho, consagrado en el artículo segundo constitucional, a ser consultados.

En su demanda, solicitaron a la SCJN ordenar a las autoridades federales que dejen de sembrarse 253 mil 500 hectáreas en cinco polígonos ubicados en la península de Yucatán, Chiapas y la planicie huasteca, cuyos permisos fueron otorgados el 11 de mayo de 2012.

Los pueblos indígenas tienen derecho a ser consultados en aquellos casos en que actos administrativos, programas de desarrollo, proyectos o medidas puedan afectar su vida y entorno de manera relevante, señalaron los ministros.

Este derecho, resaltaron, debe implementarse cuando se determine que la actividad del Estado pueda generar un impacto significativo en las comunidades.

Precisaron que los procedimientos de consulta deben ser previos y deben ajustarse a las tradiciones, lenguas y cultura indígenas, mediante datos objetivos que les permitan tomar decisiones informadas, en un ambiente fuera de hostilidades, según lo establecido por los precedentes del pleno de la Suprema Corte y en el Convenio 169 de la Organización Internacional de Trabajo.

La sala concluyó que las autoridades violaron el derecho de los quejosos a ser consultados, por lo que invalidaron permisos en los municipios de los estados de Yucatán y Campeche en que se encuentran asentadas las comunidades afectadas. Ello, hasta que la Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas y la Comisión Intersecretarial de Bioseguridad de los Organismos Genéticamente Modificados lleven a cabo una consulta .

El Centro Mexicano de Derecho Ambiental consideró esta decisión un logro histórico para el pueblo maya y para la construcción del estado pluricultural de derecho en México.

Esta decisión y otras previasmarcan el camino hacia un cambio en la legislación y la política pública del estado mexicano, donde el derecho a la consulta debe garantizarse en cualquier medida legislativa y administrativa que pueda afectar de manera directa a los pueblos y comunidades, por lo que la consulta debe ser el mecanismo que posibilite construir puentes para el diálogo en una sociedad culturalmente diversa, indicó.